Technology & Manufacturing

Technology stands above all for research and development in the field of electronic devices on a micro- as well on a nano-dimensional scale.

In addition, to focus more on facility services for customers, the service sector was re-organized in a separate organization unit which is called π-Fab. The purpose of π-Fab is the fabrication of custom-tailored prototype electron devices.

Furthermore, from nano-technology to printable macro-electronics, the Technology department is your contact for the realization and characterization of single process steps and devices up to prototypes. Based on comprehensive cleanroom facilities, silicon, as well as silicon-carbide processing, forms the backbone of the technology.

Examples for current activities are high-resolution nano-imprints on a large scale, fabrication of advanced integrated power devices, or low-temperature depositions of inorganic materials by printing techniques. The heterogeneous integration of various technologies is currently acquiring more and more importance.


Electron Device Prototype Fabrication

Prototyping Services for Electron Devices and Processes are offered and performed under the Brand Name π-Fab.

© Fraunhofer IISB

Flexibility as a Matter of Principle: π-Fab handles various Wafer Sizes and Types, the Customer may determine the Points of Entry and Exit from the Process Line.

Fraunhofer IISB operates the π-Fab, which comprises a continuous silicon CMOS and silicon carbide process line in an industry-compatible environment. π-Fab supports its customers with specific process steps, such as epitaxy or ion implantation, as well as with the fabrication of customized electron devices. Customer satisfaction and the manufacture of production ready prototypes are our main priority.

These prototyping services are offered and performed under the brand name π-Fab. In addition, π-Fab supports its customers with particular processing steps or combinations of steps, such as lithography, oxidation, LPCVD, ion implantation, annealing, dry and wet etching, metallization, diffusion, layer deposition, metrology, passivation, PECVD and ALD, and much more.

Customized Electron Devices and Processes

Based on three decades of experience in microelectronics research and development, IISB has extended its activities to industry-oriented low-volume prototype fabrication of custom-tailored electron devices, with a focus on power devices, CMOS devices, passives, sensors, and MEMS.

The unique characteristic of π-Fab is a high flexibility in wafer material and size. Silicon wafers with diameters of 150 mm and 200 mm are handled by default, further diameters on request. The process line is based on a 0.8 μm Si-CMOS technology. In addition, special attention has been given to silicon carbide (SiC) device processing on 100 mm and 150 mm wafers. For that, additional equipment is provided in π-Fab in order to realize all dedicated SiC process steps, such as epitaxy, ICP dry trench etching, growth of silicon dioxide in nitrous atmospheres, implantation of aluminum at elevated temperatures, implant activation annealing at temperatures of up to 1900 °C, or ohmic contact alloying.

Qualitity management and statistical process control are established in order to meet all the requirements of our customers.

Custom Tailored SiC Services

On the π-Fab platform, Fraunhofer IISB fabricates 4H-SiC prototype devices and supports customers with its expertise in electron device and materials development in order to promote the commercialization of SiC material and devices.

Based on IISB‘s Toolbox, Customers can utilize the Services in Order to perform, e.g., Design Studies, Feasibility Tests, Proofs of Concept, or Prototype Fabrication.

Fraunhofer IISB offers R&D Services on SiC from materials development and prototype devices to module assembly and mechatronic systems.

With its headquarters located in Erlangen, Germany’s hotspot for silicon carbide, Fraunhofer IISB has been cooperating with partners from SiC industry and research for more than 20 years.

We are confident that 4H-SiC is the ideal semiconductor for the realization of high voltage and high-power electronic devices due to its outstanding material properties.

Our mission is to make our technology and knowledge in SiC available to our customers in order to support their research, development, manufacturing of devices, modules, and systems.

Due to its material properties, 4H-SiC is the ideal semiconductor for the realization of high-voltage and high-power electronic devices as well as for sensor and detector applications in harsh environments.

Based on IISB‘s toolbox, customers can utilize the services in order to perform, e.g., design studies, feasibility tests, proofs of concept, or prototype fabrication. Fraunhofer IISB offers competent partnership for contract research and development in bilateral cooperation with industry as well as in public-funded projects. 

SiC Materials Development

© Kurt Fuchs / Fraunhofer IISB

R&D Reactor at Fraunhofer IISB for Deposition of Epitaxial SiC Layers.


  • Correlation of growth parameters and material quality based on experiments and simulation
  • Growth of n- and p-type high quality epilayers
  • Support of customers‘ process and material development


  • Structural defects in substrates and high-quality epilayers
  • Electrical analysis of epilayers
  • Defect evolution in epilayers


  • Tailored CFD software solutions
  • Fluid dynamics and heat transfer for bulk and epitaxial growth processes
  • Species transport with chemical reactions in CVD processes


  • Profound knowledge about epitaxial growth and defect evolution
  • Basal plane dislocation-free epilayers
  • PiN diodes fabricated on IISB’s epilayers

SiC Homoepitaxial Growth

© Kurt Fuchs / Fraunhofer IISB

View into Horizontal Hot-Wall Reactor for SiC Homoepitaxy during Wafer Loading.

Fraunhofer IISB has been developing epitaxial growth processes for growth on the Si- and C-face of 4H-SiC vicinal substrates having different off-cuts, e.g. different off-cut angles and directions. Furthermore, a certain growth process for epilayers with low Basal Plane Dislocation densities is available.


  • Horizontal hot-wall reactor (VP508GFR)
  • 2 separate growth tubes for n- and p-type layers with low compensation
  • Wafer capacity: 1 x 3 inch, 1 x 100 mm

CVD Process

  • Growth temperature up to 1700 °C
  • Precursors: silane, propane
  • Carrier gas: hydrogen
  • n-type by nitrogen doping (N2)
  • p-type by aluminum doping (TMA)

Typical Specifications

  • Epilayer thickness: 1 µm up to 60 µm
  • Thicker layers on request
  • n-type : 1 x 1015 cm-3 < n < 5 x 1017 cm-3
  • p-type : 1 x 1016 cm-3 < p < 5 x 1019 cm-3
  • Other doping levels on request

SiC Characterization

© Fraunhofer IISB

Dislocation-correlated Etch Pits in SiC substrate.

Fraunhofer IISB has profound knowledge about the characterization of structural defects in 4H-SiC material as well as about the electrical characterization of electronic devices. We offer characterization services based on the methods listed below and we support our customers to identify the appropriate characterization methods for their specific topics.

Epilayers and Devices

  • SEM equipped with EDS, CL, EBIC
  • TEM equipped with EDS, EELS
  • Focused ion beam (FIB)
  • X-ray topography (XRT)
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

Epitaxial Layers

  • Defect selective etching (DSE)
  • Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements
  • Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • Microwave-detected photoconductivity decay (µ-PCD)

Electronic Devices

  • Electrical characterization of devices (I-V, C-V) up to 500 °C
  • Parameter analysis of MOSFET devices
  • Static and dynamic characterization of high voltage devices
  • Automatic prober for reliability prediction

SiC Device Manufacturing

© Fraunhofer IISB

Top View of a 4H-SiC Wafer with various Types of Electron Devices: n- and p-Channel MOSFETs, MOS-gated Hall Bars, JFETs, PiN Diodes, Lateral IGBTs, Test Patterns.

Our mission is to make our technology and knowledge available to our customers in order to support their research, development, and manufacturing of SiC-based devices.

Continuous Process Line

  • Wet chemistry for cleaning
  • Photolithography
  • PECVD and ALD
  • Ion implantation with wafer heating, from low to high energies up to 6 MeV
  • Annealing (furnace and lamp heated) up to 1750 °C in various atmospheres
  • ICP for dry etching of trenches in SiC
  • N2O oxidation

Metallization and Packaging

  • Contact formation (ohmic and Schottky)
  • Deposition and structuring of metallization layers and their passivation for application temperatures up to 500 °C
  • Sintering processes for packaging

Devices and Structures

  • Design and fabrication of test structures
  • Manufacturing of power electronic and sensor devices

SiC Prototype Devices

© Kurt Fuchs / Fraunhofer IISB

Operator with SiC Wafer in Front of Horizontal Oxidation Furnace in Cleanroom Environment.


  • Prototype fabrication of power devices on a continuous CMOS process line
  • Development and realization of novel device concepts
  • Advancement of specific process steps


  • Static and dynamic electrical analysis of power devices up to 500 °C
  • Ruggedness and reliability


  • TCAD simulation of SiC devices
  • Development of compact models for electrical and thermal circuit simulations
  • Junction termination for kV devices


  • Power semiconductor devices according to customer specifications
  • High channel mobility-MOSFETs
  • „„UV / X-ray detectors

SiC Module Assembly

© Fraunhofer IISB

Silicon Carbide Device after Active Power Cycling test at High Temperature and Overcurrent.


  • Different die attach technologies
  • Diverse die attach concepts
  • High speed switching designs
  • Accelerated aging and lifetime modeling


  • Dynamic switching performance
  • Active and passive temperature cycles
  • Shear tests as die attach quality indicator
  • Analysis of lifetime and failure mechanisms


  • Thermal management from die to coolant
  • Plastic deformation during active and passive cycling
  • Intermetallic diffusion for high temperature chip metallization
  • Electric field distributions


  • Customized multi-chip power modules
  • Manufacturing and packaging
  • Design for electrical, thermal, mechanical, and lifetime constraints

SiC Mechatronic Systems

© Kurt Fuchs / Fraunhofer IISB

Electric Vehicle Test Platform for Novel Power Electronic System Approaches.


  • Evaluation of novel devices in highly efficient power electronic systems
  • Cost reduction by system integration
  • Innovative solutions for automotive and energy transfer applications


  • Dynamic switching behavior of devices
  • Burst ruggedness of gate control circuits
  • EMC characterization and optimization


  • Analytic evaluation of converter topologies
  • Optimum operating points for power semiconductors and passive devices
  • Determination of boundary conditions by electro-thermal co-simulation


  • Bidirectional DC / DC and AC / DC converters for automotive and energy management
  • Inductive charging systems for electric cars
  • Ultra-high power densities up to 100 kW / l and switching frequencies up to 1 MHz
  • Multiport concepts with lowest profile

Dr. Production

Paving the way towards intelligent equipment

Fraunhofer IISB has an outstanding expertise in the field of data-driven production optimization, demonstrated in various R&D projects in collaboration with a variety of equipment suppliers and semiconductor manufacturers all over Europe.

Under the trademark “Dr. Production”, we offer the essence of our experience to our customers and partners in order to support them in turning their production equipment into intelligent equipment.

We are convinced that not only big and high-tech manufacturers but also small and medium sized enterprises will benefit from ideas and innovative solutions that are commonly linked to “Industrie 4.0”. We will pave the way towards “Industrie 4.0” for them and make respective solutions available to their production.  

Following successive steps in cooperative partnerships - starting with individual consulting and concept development via the collection and evaluation of manufacturing data towards the development of algorithms and their test implementation– Dr. Production is able to provide individual but also integral solutions both on the large and small scale. 

In doing so, Dr. Production follows proven principles and standard processes and utilizes a tool box of approved algorithms. Dr. Production at IISB therefore is a competent partner for delimitable, bilateral collaboration with industrial partners, but also for cooperative R&D in public-funded projects.


Solutions and Services...

... on nano and micro scale:

  • microelectronic & energy
    sensors & actuators
    photonics & rf technology
    material science
    bio technology & medicine

Electron Device Prototype Fabrication

Under the brand π-Fab IISB offers industry-oriented low-volume prototype fabrication of custom-tailored electron devices. Also, customers are supported with particular processing steps or combinations of steps.


Costum-Tailored SiC Services

Fraunhofer IISB offers R&D services on SiC from materials development and prototype devices to module assembly and mechatronic systems.



Project Speed


The Technology Department participates in the SPEED project supported by the European Commission