Contamination and Manufacturing Control

Research Topics

In the field of contamination control we are developing or adapting analytical methods and sample preparation methods to provide emerging solutions for our partners. More Moore as well as More-than-Moore applications are being addressed. With feature sizes shrinking, thinner layers, new materials, 3D integration and more complex designs, contamination control is a constant challenge and a prerequisite for a continuous quality control and achieving high yields in the manufacturing processes.

Our focus is the developement of advanced contamination control methods for yield enhancement. Solutions for characterizing wafers, processes, media, materials, and equipment concerning their contamination behavior, for determining contamination sources, and for certifying cleanroom suitability are being developed together with partners. The characterization methods include the analysis of organic, inorganic and particulate contamination.

Furthermore, a test capabilities for the assessment of sensors or other electronic systems under various atmospheric conditions -even evaluations in harmful atmospheres - are being developed.


Faunhofer IISB provides services in the fields of physical, chemical and physico-chemical, and chemical analysis for micro- and nanotechnology. Fraunhofer IISB offers customer support, process optimization and development of novel processes.

  • Contamination control of media (air, UPW, chemicals), materials (glues, plastics) and wafer surfaces (Si, SiC, GaN, PV-substrates)
  • Control of manufacturing environment (Cleanroom, Minienvironments, Equipment)
  • Evaluation of clean room filters, filter materials and analysis equipment
  • Corrosion tests of materials and electrical devices & systems
  • Preparation and characterization of reference samples

Reference samples are prepared in ultra clean environment and have defined surface metal contamination or defined concentration of particles.


  • Wafer defined contaminated with (noble) metals
  • Wafer/stripe defined contaminated with organic compounds

Analytical capabilities, sample preparation

Metallic/ionic impurities

Ion chromatography (IC), Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), Laser-Ablation-Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), Wafer surface preparation system (WSPS), Vapor Phase Decomposition (VPD), Wafer surface/edge scanning, Pack Extraction methods (PEM), UV-VIS spectroscopy

Organic compounds

Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), Automatic Thermo Desorption System (ATD), Wafer Thermo Desorption system, Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (µ-CTE250)


Airborne particle counter,
Unpatterned Wafer Surface Inspection System


Gas Sensor Testbed

The gas sensor testbed allows the characterization of all type of gas sensors towards various target gases (e. g. volatile organic compounds – VOCs, etc. Permeation tubes for over 500 chemicals are available on the market) in the relevant concentrations (typical concentration of 10 - 100 ppm (2500 cc/min – 250 cc/min) by using controlled gas mixtures at different temperature (30-150 °C - heat only) and humidity (10% - 90% rH) levels. To calibrate the gas sensor systems and to perform correlation measurements the gas sensor testbed includes the possibility to use classical sampling methods and standard analytical methods (in the lab or in the field).

Corrosive Gases Testbed

The corrosive gases testbed infrastructure enables an exact dosage of the corrosive gases (H2S, SO2, Cl2 with carrier gas N2 (nitrogen), NO2 with carrier gas synthetic air and other test gases on request) with a climate conditioned air volume (10 - 90 % r. h., 15 – 60 °C) in a corrosion test chamber to test the resistance of materials and technical products to these corrosive gases in compliance with standards IEC 60068-2-60, IEC 60068-2-42/43, ISO 21207 and others.

Research Topics

Highly complex manufacturing chains, like for semiconductor devices, reveal several challenges in the areas of planning and controlling of the manufacturing, as well as logistics and factory wide quality control. In the field of controlling we are developing flexible manufacturing planning methodologies and control concepts to optimize the full process chain regarding productivity, costs and energy consumption. Focus areas are factory wide closed loop control concepts (feed forward and feedback), logistical optimization strategies, on-demand side management for energy efficiency improvement and fab wide automation aspects including ultra-thin wafer handling. All these research activities are oriented towards predictive manufacturing chains and are considering the internet of things (IoT) topics on factory level.


Our services are dedicated to the full process chain of semiconductor manufacturing and other related industries and are addressing all relevant Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), e. g. energy consumption, throughput, cycle time, costs and on-time delivery:

  • Material flow simulation and optimization of full process chains including supply chain management
  • Development or adaption of (predictive) manufacturing control concepts tailored to the customer requirements
  • Data mining for factory wide advanced process control (APC) and yield enhancement, including “big data” issues
  • Consulting services for factory automation, concept development and implementation support
  • Energy consumption analysis and demand side management of manufacturing chains